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1-Does the sample give a sufficient description, yes or no? – explain your rationale.

Yes, there is a sufficient description of the sample in the study. The researchers provided information on the students involved in the study, including their background, gender, age, the levels they had reached before this academic year, and the relevant courses they had registered for in that particular academic year (de la Fuente et al., 2020). Readers can appreciate the features of the sample to determine how much the findings would represent a wider population.

What sampling strategy was used in this study? Describe the sampling unit and sample size. Name one advantage and disadvantage of using the sampling strategy described in this study and why.

Convenience sampling was used in this study. In this respect, the sampling unit comprised undergraduates from two Spanish universities studying psychology, primary education, and early childhood education (de la Fuente et al., 2020). A total of 944 participants formed the sample size.

Convenience Sampling is usually chosen because of its convenience and affordability. It is likelier that the readily available and accessible students were used for data-gathering purposes in the present study. The strategy is more efficient in saving both cost and time, thereby providing a solution to a researcher operating under constraints like short time frames or low cost (Andrade, 2021).

However, convenience sampling has the major weakness of selection bias. The sample comprises people selected from convenience, and the resulting data cannot represent the entire community. It may constrain the applicability of the findings in a broader sense (Andrade, 2021). This research examined only baccalaureate-level students from certain majors, and it is unclear if the results can be applied to other university students or general populations. This might create low external validity, especially if the selected participant shows distinctive features from a normal student.

How do the principles of reliability and validity come into play in this study, and why is it important to have these principles?

Reliability concerns the quality of measurements or study instruments, meaning whether they will yield the same result. The researchers in this study used validated measures of variables like self-regulation, teaching effectiveness, and coping mechanisms. For example, they provided these instruments’ reliability measures (e.g., Cronbach’s alpha), suggesting they consistently measure the intended constructs (Andrade, 2021). The instruments have high reliability because they keep measuring what they are meant to be measured. This is so as there are other random errors, this will lead to increased confidence when the study results are made.

Validity: However, validity depends on how well a study measures what it seeks to measure. The short self-regulation questionnaire and the coping strategies scale were validated using earlier Spanish samples within this study. It implies that these instruments can reliably measure constructs relevant to the target population within the study’s setting. It is important to use valid instruments as it guarantees that the observed characteristics reflect the variables of interest (Andrade, 2021). Validity helps to ascertain whether the study results are true, valid, and meaningful. Therefore, reliability and validity are essential components in research for ensuring that the collected data is consistent and represents the variables of concern appropriately. Using reliable and valid instruments in this study enhances reliability and increases the quality of researchers’ work.


Andrade, C. (2021). The Inconvenient Truth about Convenience and Purposive Samples. Indian Journal of Psychological Medicine, 43(1), 86–88. Sagepub. https://doi.org/10.1177/0253717620977000

de la Fuente, J., Amate, J., Gonzalez-Torres, M. C., Artuch, R., Garcia-Torrecillas, J. M., & Fadda, S. (2020). Effects of Levels of Self-Regulation and Regulatory Teaching on Strategies for Coping With Academic Stress in Undergraduate Students. Frontiers in Psychology, 11. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2020.00022


  1. Adequate Description of the Sample

Yes, the respondent sample is established, mostly based on quotas. Quota sampling is selecting a sample to ensure that it contains specified characteristics or proportions from the group of subjects being researched. In this case, the researchers concentrated on adults with COPD who reside in the neighborhood (De la Fuente et. al 2019). Their primary goal was to recruit 98 volunteers for the research and see whether a particular therapy had beneficial benefits. The study delivered research resources to 250 persons who satisfied the eligibility requirements and were enrolled participants until they reached their target number. In order to accurately represent the broader population and ensure fair representation for all individuals, the researchers aimed to include a diverse range of people with varying characteristics in the sample they studied.

  1. Sampling Strategy, Unit, Size, Advantages, and Disadvantages

This study used a type of sampling called quota sampling. Quota sampling means that specific groups of people with a condition called COPD in the community were chosen based on some specific traits. The sampling unit for this study was each person who could participate. In order to evaluate the effectiveness of the treatment, they involved 98 individuals in the study.

Advantage: Quota sampling helps to make sure that specific characteristics of the population are represented in proportion. It helps make sure there is a variety of people in the group so we can have a better understanding of the whole group we are studying.

Disadvantage: However, one of the main problems with quota sampling is that it can be biased. If the quotas or characteristics chosen for representation do not accurately represent the population, the sample may not be fully representative. In addition, when choosing certain traits to show, this method might not consider the variety within those traits.

  1. Reliability, Validity, and Their Importance

In the study using quota sampling, it is important to focus on how trustworthy and accurate the results are. The research study aimed to achieve a specific number of participants in order to ascertain the effectiveness of the treatment, making reliability crucial. Making sure that participants are chosen based on specific quotas all the time can guarantee that the results are reliable.

Ensuring that the findings of the investigation truly reflect the entire population under study is of utmost significance. The study tried to include different groups of people in the sample so that the results would be accurate. However, the accuracy of the validity may decrease if the chosen quotas do not accurately represent and show the diversity within those characteristics.

The precision of the validity might decline if the selected quotas fail to portray the diversity encompassed by those characteristics effectively. Reliability makes sure things stay the same, while validity makes sure things are correct in the results, both of which are very important for making meaningful and correct conclusions from the research. Quota sampling was employed in the study to ensure an equal representation of various demographic groups in the sample.


Fernandez-Vazquez, S., Rosillo, R., De La Fuente, D., & Priore, P. (2019). Blockchain in FinTech: A mapping study. Sustainability, 11(22), 6366.

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