two responses?


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Could you write two responses for these discussions?

###1- Yes, the description of the sample in the study is sufficient. Furthermore, the authors present detailed data on the surveyed subjects, indicating their age, sex, academic year, and the number of students representing certain degree programs to ensure clarity of the sample composition(de la Fuente et al., 2020). Additionally, percentages and means with a standard deviation for age enhance transparency in the sample description. Including this specific data facilitates the replication of research and clarifies what particular characteristics of the subjects should be understood as they help to assess the adequacy of the sampling.

This study has made use of a convenience sampling strategy. Due to convenience and willingness to participate, researchers chose participants from two Spanish universities. This sampling strategy was used for a total sample size of 944 undergraduate students, which has pros and cons(de la Fuente et al., 2020). It provides a cheap and quick approach. The researchers will have easy access to persons who could volunteer for this study, which shortens the duration of conducting the findings(Pickering & Blaszczynski, 2021).

On the other hand, one of the major drawbacks is that it might be associated with the problem of selective bias. However, convenience sampling might not yield a full representation of the population because of those who volunteer or who are easily available(Pickering & Blaszczynski, 2021). The generalizability of the findings can be limited since it does not address the existing differences in traits within the target audience.

This study is based on two major concepts: reliability and validity. Reliability ensures that the measures applied in such studies always generate the same findings(Long & Wang, 2022). The authors mention internally consistent values (Cronbach’s alpha) for different instruments. It implies that the measures employed within the current study are highly reliable. Additionally, this implies that the instruments will give accurate and reliable data. However, the validity confirms whether or not the measures evaluate what they should measure. Their prior validation establishes the validity of these instruments and includes self-regulation, instructional effectiveness, and coping strategies in this study(Long & Wang, 2022). It is important to ensure that the instruments are reliable and valid as it increases the credibility of the study’s findings so the conclusions made based on the data reflect well the concepts in question.

###2-1. The sample population was described well. They had a population of around 400 men and women in a hospital setting with type 2 diabetes mellitus. The researchers had just a small paragraph or two about the sample population and how exactly they got people to participate. They even gave numbers for people who either did not want to participate or did not meet the criteria to participate. They could have potentially gone into even more detail, but I feel like what they have is appropriate for the study.

2. The researchers used the convenience sampling strategy in order to get their participants. The sample that the researchers got was around 400 participants before exclusions and non-participants. All of the people were recruited from a primary care center in Spain who all had diabetes mellitus. The researchers identified them all through medical records and either contacted them in person at the clinic, through nursing consultations, or called them over the telephone to see if they wanted to participate in the research study. The advantage of the convenience sampling strategy is the simplicity of getting research subjects. It is much easier to get subjects using this strategy than others. One major disadvantage would be the fact that each of the participants is a volunteer and is not really screened thoroughly for biases. This strategy is just to get the most amount of subjects in the least amount of time.

3. Both of these principles play into the actually credibility of the study. Can the study findings be replicated and actually applied to people outside of the study itself. I feel that the study manages to do this quite well and that using the kind of population that they did allowed them to be able to really address both of these important principles of the research process

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