Research Plan: Title, Introduction, Research Questions, and Hypothesis, and Participants and Setting section


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Important Notes:

Research Topic: Diversity Among School Leadership: How the Under-Representation of African American Male Administrators in K-12 Leadership Has Resulted in Higher Turnover Rates Among African American Male Educators.

Problem Statement: The under-representation of diversity in school leadership among administrators has resulted in higher turnover rates among African Americans (Castro, A., Germain, E., Gooden, M., & University Council for Educational Administration, 2018).

This is a QUANTATIVE research study. All data and measurements should be of a quantitative research nature.

Only complete the first. 2 sections of the template. Title, Introduction, Research Questions, Hypothesis Section,

Title, Introduction, Research Questions, Hypothesis Section, Participants, and Setting Section.

All sources should be current no longer than five years old.

I have attached the assignment template and an example to use. reference.


For this assignment, complete the following sections of the provided Research Plan Template according to the guidelines specified below: Title, Introduction, Research Questions, Hypothesis, and Participants and Setting.

1. Title – The title includes the precise identification of the problem; it contains the independent and dependent variables and target population. It must be clear, concise, and fully descriptive of the study. The recommended length is 12 words.

2. Introduction – The introduction should catch the audience’s attention by using a “hook” and convince the reader that the topic or issue is important by using at least 3-4 scholarly journal articles published within the last five years. It provides a general overview of the topic and prepares the reader for the background section of the manuscript. The recommended length is 200–300 words.

3. Research Questions – The proposed research questions need to be derived from the problem and purpose statements. A well-formulated research question:

  • asks about the relationship/differences between two or more variables,
  • is stated clearly and in the form of a question,
  • is testable (i.e., possible to collect quantitative data to answer the question),
  • does not pose an ethical or moral problem for implementation,
  • is specific and restricted in scope (i.e., the aim is not to solve the world’s problems), and
  • identifies exactly what is to be solved.
  • A good research question also clearly identifies the sample population. In addition, it should be noted that the research question implies the research design and statistical analysis.

    A typical dissertation contains one to three research questions. Research questions should be listed, each on a separate line.

    4. Hypothesis – Every research question will normally have at least one corresponding null hypothesis; however, sometimes more than one is needed. The number of hypotheses needed should be based on the number of variables under study and the planned analysis method. Well-formulated hypotheses are based on the following criteria:

  • the hypothesis states the expected relationship/differences between variables,
  • the hypothesis is testable,
  • the hypothesis is stated as simply and concisely as possible and
  • the hypothesis is founded in the problem statement and supported by research.
  • Like the research questions, the hypotheses directly influence the statistical procedures used. It is recommended that hypotheses be written in the null form, mainly because that is how they will be treated in the statistical analyses. If hypotheses are written in directional form (directional research hypotheses), there must be a firm basis in the literature for doing so.

    Participants and Setting section of the Template

    For this assignment, complete the Participants and Setting section of the Research Plan Template using the same template file to build upon your previous submission’s content.

    Begin by describing your target population. This may include the description of a large geographical area or a school district from which the sample was drawn. Real names should never be used.

    Next, describe your sample. The sample size, sample type, and sampling procedures (e.g., convenience sampling, cluster sampling, etc.) must be explained. In other words, the sample selection procedures (i.e., who, what, when, where, how) must be explained in enough detail for the study to be replicated. Include basic demographic information (e.g., number of participants, sample size, age, ethnicity, gender, etc.) described in narrative form. Since this is only a research plan and you do not have actual participant information, plug-in “placeholders” (e.g., the sample consisted of 00 males and 00 females).

    Look ahead to the Data Analysis section. You should be able to determine the type of statistical test you will need based on your research question. Based on this, use g*power (see text resource website) and calculate the number of participants based on a medium effect size, alpha of 0.05, and statistical power of .8. If you are administering a survey, use a sample size calculator to determine the necessary number of participants for a 95% confidence level, 5% margin or error, and population proportion of 50% (this will be the minimal response rate of your survey).

    Next, discuss the setting (e.g., specific course, program, online/offline environment, semester term, and/or treatment/control group testing location, etc.). Real names for people and schools should never be used. Use pseudonyms for descriptors when necessary (e.g., high school #1, biology lab # 2). The setting, especially the treatment setting, needs to be described in sufficient detail to replicate the study. The setting is often intertwined with the description of the sample.

    After you have described the sample and setting, you need to identify and describe each group (e.g., treatment, control, etc.). Remember: correlational studies involve two or more variables and only “one group.” Explain the groups’ formations (e.g., random assignment, naturally occurring groups, etc.) and demographic information (e.g., age, ethnicity, gender, grade level, etc.) for each group. Since this is a research plan and you do not have actual group information, plug in “placeholders” (e.g., the treatment group will consist of 00 males and 00 females, etc.). Groups must be explained in enough detail for the study to be replicated.

    The recommended length for the Participants and Setting section is 200-400 words.

    In addition, provide references at the bottom of the template for all sources cited. All references must be formatted according to current APA formatting guidelines.

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