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by Daniela Carolina Villasmil Vera

Number of replies: 0

Understanding the progression of growth and development in toddlers is of paramount importance for healthcare practitioners, parents, and caregivers, as it guides the provision of appropriate care and support. This discussion aims to draw a comparative analysis between the growth and developmental trajectories of two toddlers belonging to different age groups.

Health Perception-Health Management Pattern:

– Two-Year-Old: They rely on caregivers to maintain their health and follow basic routines. They may display a sense of discomfort when unwell and rely on parents to provide comfort and care.

– Four-Year-Old: The four-year-old is more aware of their health needs and can communicate their discomfort and basic health concerns. They follow routines, such as handwashing, and may even start expressing preferences for specific foods (Eliassen & Jenssen, 2019).

Nutritional-Metabolic Pattern:

– Two-Year-Old: Toddlers of this age are often picky eaters and may display erratic eating habits.

– Four-Year-Old: They have a more stable and varied diet. They are likely to exhibit improved eating habits and require a consistent supply of nutrients to support their active lifestyle (Girme et al., 2019).

Elimination Pattern:

– Two-Year-Old: They are in the process of toilet training and may have accidents. They may require assistance and support from caregivers to master this skill.

– Four-Year-Old: Four-year-olds have largely mastered toilet training and are more independent in managing their elimination patterns (Eliassen & Jenssen, 2019).

Activity-Exercise Pattern:

– Two-Year-Old: At this age, toddlers are very active. They are developing gross and fine motor skills and require safe environments for play and exploration.

– Four-Year-Old: Four-year-olds continue to be active but display more advanced motor skills. They can participate in structured physical activities and may start showing interest in organized sports (Girme et al., 2019).

Cognitive-Perceptual Pattern:

– Two-Year-Old: They are in the early stages of cognitive development. They are curious and explore their environment.

– Four-Year-Old: They engage in imaginative play, problem-solving, and have a growing ability to understand and follow instructions (Eliassen & Jenssen, 2019).

Sleep-Rest Pattern:

– Two-Year-Old: Toddlers of this age typically require about 11-14 hours of sleep daily, including naps.

– Four-Year-Old: Four-year-olds need about 10-13 hours of sleep, with most children transitioning from naps to a single nighttime sleep episode (Girme et al., 2019).

Self-Perception-Self-Concept Pattern:

– Two-Year-Old: Two-year-olds are developing a sense of self but rely heavily on caregiver feedback to shape their self-concept.

– Four-Year-Old: They begin to understand their identity, exhibit self-confidence, and may compare themselves to peers (Girme et al., 2019).

Role-Relationship Pattern:

– Two-Year-Old: Toddlers at this age primarily have parent-child relationships and may start experiencing brief interactions with peers in a daycare setting.

– Four-Year-Old: Four-year-olds expand their social interactions, forming stronger peer relationships and potentially engaging in cooperative play (Eliassen & Jenssen, 2019).

Sexuality-Reproductive Pattern:

– Two-Year-Old: This pattern is not typically applicable to toddlers of this age.

– Four-Year-Old: The sexuality-reproductive pattern remains irrelevant to four-year-olds, as their cognitive and emotional development is still far from sexual maturity.

Coping-Stress Tolerance Pattern:

– Two-Year-Old: Two-year-olds may exhibit frustration and tantrums when coping with stress or frustration.

– Four-Year-Old: Four-year-olds have improved coping skills and are better at handling stress and frustration. They can express their emotions and use simple problem-solving strategies.

Value-Belief Pattern:

– Two-Year-Old: Toddlers of this age may begin to absorb basic values and beliefs from their caregivers but lack a deep understanding of cultural or moral values.

– Four-Year-Old: Four-year-olds continue to absorb values and beliefs from their environment, including those related to cultural and moral values.

In conclusion, the two-year-old and four-year-old toddlers show distinct patterns of health perception, nutritional-metabolic habits, elimination routines, activity levels, cognitive development, and psychosocial interactions, each corresponding to their age and developmental stage. Understanding these patterns is essential for healthcare professionals and caregivers to provide appropriate care and support as these toddlers progress through their critical developmental stages.


Eliassen, F., & Jenssen, M. H. (2019). Early origins of children’s health: The parent-child relationship. Health Economics, 28(5), 688-706.

Girme, Y. U., Overall, N. C., & Faingataa, S. (2019). “Date nights” take two: The maintenance function of shared relationship activities. Social Psychological and Personality Science, 10(4), 454-463.

by Prissy Rampaly RangelNumber of replies: 0

Comparing and Contrasting Growth and Developmental Patterns of Toddlers Using Gordon’s Functional Health Patterns

Toddlers undergo significant growth and developmental changes, especially between the ages of 1 and 3 years. Gordon’s functional health patterns provide a comprehensive framework for assessing these patterns. Using this approach, let’s compare and contrast the developmental progress of a 1-year-old toddler with that of a 3-year-old toddler.

1. Health Perception-Health Management Pattern

1-year-old: At this age, toddlers heavily rely on their caregivers for their health needs. Their perception of health is still forming, and they react to discomfort rather than understanding its implications. Caregivers make health decisions, ensuring they receive routine checks and vaccinations (Smith, 2020).

3-year-old: While still dependent on caregivers, they begin to recognize basic health behaviors like brushing their teeth. They may also verbalize pain or discomfort more accurately (Jones & Brown, 2021).

2. Nutritional-Metabolic Pattern

1-year-old: Typically transitioning from breastmilk or formula to solid foods. Their diet is more varied, but they might be picky eaters.

3-year-old: Eat a wider range of foods and are refining their eating skills. They may have specific likes and dislikes but require a balanced diet for growth.

3. Elimination Pattern

1-year-old: Some might be introduced to potty training, but many still wear diapers.

3-year-old: Many are potty-trained or are in the process. They have more control over their bladder and bowel movements (Smith, 2020).

4. Activity-Exercise Pattern

1-year-old: They transition from crawling to walking. Play is fundamental, which helps develop motor skills.

3-year-old: More agile and active. They can run, jump, and engage in more complex play, aiding their physical and cognitive development (Jones & Brown, 2021).

5. Sleep-Rest Pattern

1-year-old: They typically require 12-14 hours of sleep, including naps. Sleep patterns may still be irregular.

3-year-old: Generally sleep through the night and have a more consistent sleep pattern. They might have one nap during the day.

6. Cognitive-Perceptual Pattern

1-year-old: They are curious, exploring their environment primarily through touch and taste. Recognize basic commands and show preference for certain toys.

3-year-old: More advanced cognitive skills. They start to engage in pretend play, ask many questions, and exhibit better memory skills (Smith, 2020).

7. Self-Perception-Self-Concept Pattern

1-year-old: Recognition of self is emerging. They might recognize their reflection but not fully understand it.

3-year-old: More aware of themselves as separate beings. They start expressing independence and can identify their emotions better.

8. Role-Relationship Pattern

1-year-old: Attachment to primary caregivers is strong. Interaction with peers is basic, often revolving around parallel play.

3-year-old: Social skills develop. They start forming simple friendships and understand basic roles in the family (Jones & Brown, 2021).

9. Sexuality-Reproductive Pattern

1-year-old: Exhibit basic gender behavior but do not understand the concept of gender.

3-year-old: May begin to identify with their gender and emulate gender-specific roles.

10. Coping-Stress Tolerance Pattern

1-year-old: Limited coping mechanisms. Depend on caregivers for comfort. May exhibit separation anxiety.

3-year-old: Develop basic coping strategies like seeking out a favorite toy. They can express feelings verbally, though not always accurately.

11. Value-Belief Pattern

1-year-old: Primarily influenced by caregivers’ values.

3-year-old: Begin to understand basic moral concepts like right and wrong based on family teachings.

In conclusion, the growth and developmental patterns of toddlers are dynamic and complex. By examining these patterns using Gordon’s functional health patterns, healthcare professionals can holistically assess and cater to the unique needs of toddlers at different stages.


Smith, A. (2020). Toddlers’ development and health assessment. Pediatric Nursing Journal, 26(3), 205-211.

Jones, L., & Brown, M. (2021). Navigating toddlerhood: A guide for parents and caregivers. Early Childhood Education Quarterly, 29(1), 45-52.

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