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Ar1- The sample of the De la Fuente et al. (2019) study has been effectively described. The sample size, the features of the research participants, and the sampling procedure are all covered in length by the writers. This degree of specificity guarantees that the reader comprehends the study sample and how well it may be applied to the intended audience. To improve the sample’s description, the writers additionally go over the inclusion and exclusion criteria that were used to choose it. This data gives the study crucial background and enables readers to evaluate the study’s findings’ external validity. The authors not only describe the sample but also present the findings of its demographic attributes, including age, gender, marital status, and level of education. Understanding the study sample and how it represents the more significant population depends on this information. Through an extensive sample description, the authors have enhanced the reliability and validity of their findings.

The research conducted in 2019 by De la Fuente et al. employed a convenience sampling approach. Convenience sampling is a nonprobability sampling technique in which study participants are chosen among the most accessible individuals or items. In this instance, a home healthcare organization provided the researchers with a readily available source of study participants for their recruitment. The older persons living in the community and utilizing home health care services served as the study’s sample. The researchers assessed the efficacy of their intervention in a pertinent and valuable environment by focusing on this particular demographic. The study’s sample size was explicitly stated since 100 participants were split into two groups of 50 each. However, selection bias is a crucial drawback when employing a convenience sample technique. Because participants in this kind of sampling choose to participate in the research voluntarily, they might differ from non-participants in particular traits or viewpoints. Although the sample may represent the target community, the study’s capacity to generalize its findings to a larger group is limited.

In the research of De la Fuente et al. (2019), the concepts of validity and reliability are essential since they guarantee the precision and validity of the study results. Validity is a measure’s accuracy or truthfulness, whereas reliability is consistency or stability. To ensure the accuracy of their data, the researchers in this study measured their variables of interest using validated instruments. This indicates that the study’s measures were reliable and yielded consistent results when employed repeatedly, which increases the validity of the research’s conclusions. The study generally benefits from applying validity and reliability standards since they support the integrity and honesty of the data gathered. Through the implementation of standardized and validated measures and the execution of a pilot study, the investigators have enhanced the caliber of their substantiation and bolstered the degree of confidence in the study outcomes.


LoBiondo-Wood, G., & Haber, J. (2022). Nursing research methods and critical appraisal for evidence-based practice (10th ed.). St. Louis, MO: Elsevier Inc.

Pa2- After reading the research article by De la Fuente et. al 2019 in Appendix B of the text book, I believe that this research was very beneficial and a successful topic. I believe that the sample was adequately described for many reasons. The description of how the participants were recruited and put into a sample include where they were from, how the researcher was collecting the information on the participants, how many people would be involved, the demographics including their age, gender, and disease process of each individual, and the timeframe in which they were collected. The description then goes on to explain how each of the participants responded to the research, how they were informed and contacted, and the results as to how the collection of data went. I think that the sampling strategy that was used for this study was the quota sampling because as the book states, “quota sampling refers to a form of nonprobability sampling in which subjects who meet the inclusion criteria are recruited and consecutively enrolled until the target sample size is reached.” This specific study had the inclusion criteria of people with type 2 diabetes because that is what the research study was about. While I do not totally agree with the term “recruited” for this study, I do agree with the fact they they were enrolled selectively until that target population was reached of 400. An advantage of this study is that it is specific towards one specific criteria (type 2 diabetes) and has a sample size planned. One disadvantage of this sample strategy is that it takes a great amount of time in order to find specific people with the same criteria and to reach your maximum amount, so this would not be a strategy to use if you are in a time crunch.

Reliability and validity come into play in this study just as they do with any other research study out there. The sources and population researched have to be reliable sources of their information and what they provide must be valid. It is so important to have these principles because they allow for the reader to trust the information and article without any doubts if the information is right or made up.

LoBiondo-Wood, G., & Haber, J. (2022). Nursing research: Methods and critical appraisal for evidence-based practice (10th ed.). Elsevier.

3- 1. The sample population was described well. They had a population of around 400 men and women in a hospital setting with type 2 diabetes mellitus. The researchers had just a small paragraph or two about the sample population and how exactly they got people to participate. They even gave numbers for people who either did not want to participate or did not meet the criteria to participate. They could have potentially gone into even more detail, but I feel like what they have is appropriate for the study.

2. The researchers used the convenience sampling strategy in order to get their participants. The sample that the researchers got was around 400 participants before exclusions and non-participants. All of the people were recruited from a primary care center in Spain who all had diabetes mellitus. The researchers identified them all through medical records and either contacted them in person at the clinic, through nursing consultations, or called them over the telephone to see if they wanted to participate in the research study. The advantage of the convenience sampling strategy is the simplicity of getting research subjects. It is much easier to get subjects using this strategy than others. One major disadvantage would be the fact that each of the participants is a volunteer and is not really screened thoroughly for biases. This strategy is just to get the most amount of subjects in the least amount of time.

3. Both of these principles play into the actually credibility of the study. Can the study findings be replicated and actually applied to people outside of the study itself. I feel that the study manages to do this quite well and that using the kind of population that they did allowed them to be able to really address both of these important principles of the research process.

LoBiondo-Wood, G. & Haber, J. (2022). Nursing Research: Methods and Critical Appraisal for Evidence-Based Practice. Elsevier.


Adequate Description of the Sample

Yes, the respondent sample is established, mostly based on quotas. Quota sampling is selecting a sample to ensure that it contains specified characteristics or proportions from the group of subjects being researched. In this case, the researchers concentrated on adults with COPD who reside in the neighborhood (De la Fuente et. al 2019). Their primary goal was to recruit 98 volunteers for the research and see whether a particular therapy had beneficial benefits. The study delivered research resources to 250 persons who satisfied the eligibility requirements and were enrolled participants until they reached their target number. In order to accurately represent the broader population and ensure fair representation for all individuals, the researchers aimed to include a diverse range of people with varying characteristics in the sample they studied.

Sampling Strategy, Unit, Size, Advantages, and Disadvantages

This study used a type of sampling called quota sampling. Quota sampling means that specific groups of people with a condition called COPD in the community were chosen based on some specific traits. The sampling unit for this study was each person who could participate. In order to evaluate the effectiveness of the treatment, they involved 98 individuals in the study.

Advantage: Quota sampling helps to make sure that specific characteristics of the population are represented in proportion. It helps make sure there is a variety of people in the group so we can have a better understanding of the whole group we are studying.

Disadvantage: However, one of the main problems with quota sampling is that it can be biased. If the quotas or characteristics chosen for representation do not accurately represent the population, the sample may not be fully representative. In addition, when choosing certain traits to show, this method might not consider the variety within those traits.

Reliability, Validity, and Their Importance

In the study using quota sampling, it is important to focus on how trustworthy and accurate the results are. The research study aimed to achieve a specific number of participants in order to ascertain the effectiveness of the treatment, making reliability crucial. Making sure that participants are chosen based on specific quotas all the time can guarantee that the results are reliable.

Ensuring that the findings of the investigation truly reflect the entire population under study is of utmost significance. The study tried to include different groups of people in the sample so that the results would be accurate. However, the accuracy of the validity may decrease if the chosen quotas do not accurately represent and show the diversity within those characteristics.

The precision of the validity might decline if the selected quotas fail to portray the diversity encompassed by those characteristics effectively. Reliability makes sure things stay the same, while validity makes sure things are correct in the results, both of which are very important for making meaningful and correct conclusions from the research. Quota sampling was employed in the study to ensure an equal representation of various demographic groups in the sample.


Fernandez-Vazquez, S., Rosillo, R., De La Fuente, D., & Priore, P. (2019). Blockchain in FinTech: A mapping study. Sustainability, 11(22), 6366

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