Discussion week 10 reply Pharmacology


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Screening Tools

In Mr. Deliver’s case, healthcare providers would use screening instruments and diagnostic examinations to confirm his attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) diagnosis. The Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS) and Conners Adult ADHD Rating Scales (CAARS) are often used to screen adults with ADHD. ASRS is a popular self-assessment measure for ADHD patients and provides their assessment of symptoms (Silverstein et al., 2019). This scale asks patients to rank ADHD symptoms’ frequency and severity. The ASRS can help Mr. Deliver explain his ADHD symptoms. It closely matches the DSM-5 criteria for ADHD in adults, helping healthcare practitioners comprehend his symptoms and their impact on his everyday life.

CAARS provides a complete picture of ADHD symptoms in adults, similar to Mr. Deliver. CAARS uses self-report and observer assessments, unlike ASRS. These scales include a wide range of ADHD-related behaviors and experiences for a more complete assessment (Silverstein et al., 2019). Mr. Deliver may self-report, while family and friends could see his ADHD-related activities. CAARS’ observer assessments reveal how these symptoms affect Mr. Deliver’s employment, relationships, and everyday routines. Beyond self-report and observer assessments, clinician interviews are key to Mr. Deliver’s assessment. A trained healthcare provider specializing in adult ADHD questions can ask Mr. Deliver about his symptoms, their onset, duration, and living concerns. This can help the provider to link his symptoms to his normal life.

Pharmacological Treatment for Adults with Inattentive Type

Psychostimulants are often used to treat ADHD in adult patients. Amphetamine- and methylphenidate-based psychostimulants are commonly recommended for ADHD. Adderall is an amphetamine-based medication and it is commonly used for ADHD treatment. They are available in short-acting and extended-release forms. Extended-release versions relieve symptoms for 8 to 12 hours, while short-acting versions last 4 hours (Pallanti et al., 2020). Mr. Deliver, who struggles with concentration and time management, may benefit from the extended-release option, which lasts all day. His focus, task completion, and responsibility management can improve greatly.

Methylphenidate-based ADHD medications such as Ritalin and Concerta are also available for ADHD patients (Filipe, 2023). They are available in short-acting and extended-release versions like amphetamines. The choice between amphetamine and methylphenidate-based drugs may rely on Mr. Deliver’s response and side effects. Both types of psychostimulants can cause heart rate, blood pressure, hunger, and sleep abnormalities.

Mr. Deliver, who has hypertension and sleep issues, must discuss these adverse effects with his provider. Given his pre-existing illness, cardiovascular monitoring and treatment are crucial. ADHD treatment relies on psychoeducation and behavior modification. Mr. Deliver can benefit from knowing ADHD and learning symptom management measures. These tactics may include time management, organization, and focus. This education allows Mr. Deliver to actively manage his illness, which is important as a computer programmer.

Psychostimulant interactions with Mr. Deliver’s hypertension and hyperlipidemia drugs (HCTZ and fish oil) must be evaluated. In hypertensives, stimulants may raise blood pressure and heart rate, requiring strict monitoring (Filipe, 2023). Mr. Deliver’s healthcare providers must coordinate to manage these contacts. Mr. Deliver should realize that ADHD is typically chronic. Therefore, ongoing education, follow-up appointments, and drug efficacy and side effects monitoring are crucial. This continual approach and open contact with his healthcare provider can help Mr. Deliver navigate any hurdles and change his treatment plan.

Pharmacological Treatment for Adults with Hyperactive Type

In the case of Thomas, a 13-year-old who meets the diagnostic criteria for ADHD of the hyperactive type, the approach to pharmacological treatment differs significantly, considering his age and the availability of Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved medications suitable for pediatric use (Childress & Burton, 2022). ADHD treatments for children frequently involve stimulants. Methylphenidate and amphetamine-containing ADHD treatments calm hyperactive children. They may boost dopamine, a neurotransmitter involved in motivation, attention, and movement. If behavioral measures do not work for Thomas, stimulants may be explored. They are the main treatment for pediatric ADHD and come in short-acting and extended-release versions.

The FDA has approved non-stimulant ADHD treatments for children. These drugs offer alternatives to stimulants when they are unsuccessful or controversial. Strattera (atomoxetine), Intuniv (guanfacine), and Kapvay (clonidine) are examples (Childress & Burton, 2022). Thomas’s provider will choose stimulant or non-stimulant drugs based on his symptoms, side effects, and contraindications. A pediatric ADHD specialist will advise on the decision. Behavioral therapy helps many ADHD children, including hyperactive ones, in addition to medication. Behavioral therapy teaches children symptom management and coping skills. Parents can also ask their children’s schools and neighborhood support groups for ADHD advice.


Childress, A., & Burton, S. (2022). Evaluating the pharmacokinetics of extended-release viloxazine in the treatment of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Expert Opinion on Drug Metabolism & Toxicology, 18(6), 357-366. https://doi.org/10.1080/17425255.2022.2103406

Filipe, A. M. (2023). The other face of medical globalization? Pharmaceutical data, prescribing trends, and the social localization of psychostimulants. BioSocieties, 18(2), 335-357. https://doi.org/10.1057/s41292-022-00271-x

Pallanti, S., Salerno, L., Pallanti, S., & Salerno, L. (2020). The treatment of adult ADHD: Complexity at hand. The Burden of Adult ADHD in Comorbid Psychiatric and Neurological Disorders, 1(1), 307-345.https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-39051-8_19

Silverstein, M. J., Faraone, S. V., Alperin, S., Leon, T. L., Biederman, J., Spencer, T. J., & Adler, L. A. (2019). Validation of the expanded versions of the adult ADHD self-report scale v1. 1 symptom checklist and the adult ADHD investigator symptom rating scale. Journal of Attention Disorders, 23(10), 1101-1110.https://doi.org/10.1177/1087054718756198

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