Citing sources


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Write out verbal citations for these 5 sources/quotations as if you were citing the information in a speech.

For each:

  1. set up the information/attribute the source (5 pts)
    • How much of the date is needed?
    • Source: are outlet and author both needed?
    • Will you cite the title?
  2. paraphrase the quotation (5 pts)
    • So, re-write the quotation in your own words


  • Avoid jargon and overly technical phrases; put things in layperson’s terms
  • If the date of publication is more than one year old, maybe just cite the year (not day and month)
  • If author is unknown, maybe just cite outlet/publication
  • If speaker is unknown, cite organization


EXAMPLE: Informational speech on the dangers of tackle football:

Quote: “Children were never intended to be hit in the head five-hundred times in three months every year while their brain is going through incredible development.”

Title: Is NFL’s massive popularity headed for a fall?

Publication: The Star Tribune

Date: January 31, 2018

Author: Joe Christensen

Speaker: Chris Nowinski, Co-founder Concussion Legacy Foundation

Dr. J’s paraphrase and attribution:

  • A 2018 Star Tribune article cited the co-founder of the Concussion Legacy Foundation on the dangers of tackle football, who said children, with developing brains, were never meant to be hit in the head 500x per season.
    • Rationale: article is over a couple years old, so only the year is needed, not the day and month
    • Speaker is generally unknown, so I stated the Foundation he works for, which may be known
    • Avoid clunky phrases and bombarding the audience with #s:
      • e.g. “five hundred times in three months every year” is clunky and was revised
    • Put things is layperson’s terms: “three months every year” is a “season”



  1. Informational speech on hurricanes:

“Eight of the state’s confirmed deaths have been due to carbon monoxide poisoning, according to the Louisiana Department of Health. The state’s department of health had stressed that generators should be used outdoors and placed away from windows, doors and vents — all of which can allow carbon monoxide to seep inside. Because carbon monoxide is odorless, it can be difficult to detect and can be dangerous indoors.”

Title: More than half the deaths associated with Hurricane Laura were caused by the improper use of portable generators.


Author: Lauren M. Johnson.

Date: Sept. 2, 2020

2. Informational speech on FSW’s name change:

“Fifty-two years of history may be in the books, but that doesn’t mean it’s history. Edison State College on Tuesday became Florida SouthWestern State College, and in doing so, many vestiges of its past disappeared: marquees at campus entrances have been painted over, Edison’s familiar torch logo has been covered or removed from signs and the website switched from to”

Title: Edison State was the past, FSW is the future.

Publication: The News-Press

Date: July 2, 2014

Author: Dave Breitenstein

3. Informational speech on urban wildlife:

“Within a square kilometer of downtown, you might find more mammalian carnivores than you would in the same square kilometer out in the forest.”

Title: How animal cameras are capturing Seattle’s wild side

Publication: PBS NewsHour

Date: January 10, 2018

Speaker: Mark Jordan, Biology professor, University of Seattle

4. Informational Speech on who Johnny Cash was

“Johnny Cash’s voluminous recordings rank as some of the best in country music history. Hundreds of his songs…are among the bedrock of the country music canon.”

Book Title: Johnny Cash: The Songs

Publication: Mainstream Publishing

Date: 2005

Author: Don Cusic

5. Speech on racism in America:

“I am a white Canadian and I will never know what it feels like to be an African American. But what I do know is I am willing to stand up and use my voice to shine light on racism, because it’s a real thing and it’s more prevalent now than I have ever seen in my lifetime.”

Article title: Justin Bieber: ‘I Am Willing to Stand Up’ for Black Lives Matter.

Publication: Rolling Stone

Author: Joyce Chen

Date: September 22, 2017

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